B. Sc. (AGRICULTURE)

B. Sc. in AGRICULTURE

Duration : 4 Years, Eligibility : 10+2 (passed with  Science or Agriculture with minimum 50% passing marks)

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore (M. P.)
(Regular Mode)  U.G.C. Recognized
Examinations : JUNE / DECEMBER
Verification Mode : (POSTAL, Physical, RTI Letter, ONLINE)

Fees : 1st Year :: Rs. 70,000/- per year (LUMSUM), from 2nd Year @ Rs. 65,000/- per year  
Installments : Regn. Amt : Rs. 20,000/- then monthly @10,000/- per month

 

HIMALAYAN UNIVERSITY, Ita Nagar, A. P. 
(Regular Mode)  U.G.C. Recognized
Examinations : JUNE / DECEMBER
Verification Mode : (POSTAL, Physical, RTI Letter, ONLINE)

Fees :  @ Rs. 40,000/- per year  
Installments : Regn. Amt : Rs. 20,000/- then monthly @10,000/- per month

 1st YEAR

PAPER 101 :- Introductory Agriculture

Theory: Meaning and scope of Agronomy: National and International Agricultural Research Institutes located in India, Agro-climatic zones of India and Orissa. Classification of crops Crop rotation principles and advantages, cropping pattern, cropping schemes, multiple cropping and mixed cropping principles and advantages, intercropping types and advantages and assessment. Relay cropping, pair cropping and crop interactions. Crop growth and development, and factors affecting yield. Crop stand establishment, planting geometry and its effect on growth and yield. Selection of seed, sowing methods, tillage and it’s objectives, types and effect of tillage on soil, tillage implements and harvesting. Yield and it’s estimation. Soil fertility and productivity, maintenance of fertility, essential elements, their sources and availability and uptake by crops Manures and fertilizers- organic and in organic ,green maturing, bio-fertilizers, balanced fertilizers, principles governing time and method of fertilizer application, integrated nutrient management.

Practical: Identification of field crops and under utilized crops and their growth stages; Study of tillage implements; Practice of ploughing; Practice of puddling; Study of seeding equipments; Different methods of sowing; Study of manures, fertilizers and green manure crops / seeds (including calculations); Study of inter-cultivation implements and practice; Practice of methods of fertilizer application; Preparation of fertilizers mixture and spray solutions; Compost making; Participation in ongoing field operations.

Reference Book:

1. Principles of Agronomy – T.Y. Reddy and G. H. SankarReddi
2. Principles of Agronomy – S. R. Reddy
3. The Nature and Properties of Soil – N.C.Brady and Ray R. Weil
4. Manures and Fertilizers – K. S. Yawalkar, J.P. Agrawal and S. Bokde 5. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth –E.W.Russeland E.J. Russell

PAPER 102 :- Principles of Agronomy

Theory: Art, Science and business of crop production. Factors affecting crop production. Brief history of agricultural development:- Chronological Agricultural Technology development in India. Indian Agriculture, Agricultural growth, Balance sheet (DATA). Diversity in Physiographic, Soil groups, Marine, Livestock and Water Dry land agriculture; Farming Systems approach; value addition requirements in new technology; Women in Agriculture: multifaceted roles and tasks, work stress factors, Nutritional and rural life standards, role in house hold design making, drudgery reduction for farm women, women friendly agricultural technology. Empowerment of women; Group dynamics for farm women and rural women- the nucleus of agricultural extension and training

Reference Book:

1. History of Agriculture in India, Vol.I-IV – (Ed.)M.S.Randhawa
2. Rainfed Agriculture in India:Research and development Scenario. J. Venkataswarelu

3. Concise History of Science in India, Agriculture – S.P. Rayachaudhury, D.M. Bose, S.N. Sen and B.V.A. Subbarayappa
4. Women in Agriculture – B. Wasnik

PAPER 103 :- Principles of Genetics

Theory: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and exceptions to the laws; Types of gene action, Multiple alleles, Pleiotropism, Penetrance and expressivity; Quantitative traits, Qualitative traits and differences between them; Multiple factor hypothesis; Cytoplasmic inheritance, it’s characteristic features and difference between chromosomal and cytoplasmic inheritance; Mutation and it’s characteristic features; Methods of inducing mutations and C l B technique; molecular basis of gene mutation; Mechanisms of sex determination; Gene expression and differential gene activation; operand concept and Fine structure of Gene; DNA and it’s structure, function, types, modes of replication and repair; RNA and its structure, function and types; Transcription, Translation, Genetic code and outline of protein synthesis; Crossing over and factors affecting it; Mechanism of crossing over and Cytological proof of crossing over; Linkage, Types of linkage and estimation of linkage; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; Changes in gene and genotype frequencies; Genetic disorders and gene therapy.

Practical: Gametogenesis and fertilization; Monohybrid ratio and its modifications; Dihybrid ratio and its modifications; Trihybrid ratio; Chi-square analysis and Interaction of factors; Epistatic factors, Supplementary factors and Duplicate factors; Complementary factors, Additive factors and Inhibitory factors; Blood grouping and PTC test in human; Linkage – Two point test cross; Linkage – Three point test cross; gene order and genetic map.

Reference Book:

1. Genes – B. Lewin
2. Fundamentals of Genetics -B. D. Singh
3. Genetics – M. W. Strickberger
4. Principles of Genetics – E.W.Sinnott, L.C.Dunn, T.Dobzhansky
5. Principles of Genetics – E. J.Gardner, M. J.Simmons and D. P. Snustad

PAPER 104 :- Introduction to Soil Science

Theory: Soil : Pedological and edaphological concepts, Origin of the earth, Earth’s crust: Composition: Rocks and minerals, Weathering, soil formation factors and processes, components of soils, Soil profile, soil physical properties, soil texture, textural classes, particle size analysis, soil structure, classification, soil aggregates, significance, soil consistency, soil crusting, Bulk density and particle density of soils & porosity, their significance and manipulation, soil compaction, soil colour, elementary knowledge of soil classification and soils of India; soil water, Retention and potentials, soil moisture constants, movement of soil water, Infiltration, Percolation, Permeability, Drainage, Methods of determination of soil moisture. Thermal properties of soil, soil temperature, Soil air, Gaseous exchange, influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth; Soil colloids, properties, Nature, Types & significance; Layer silicate clays, their genesis and sources of charges, adsorption of ions, ion exchange, CEC and AEC ,factors influencing ion exchange and its significance. Soil organic matter, composition, decomposability, Humus, Fractionation of organic matter, carbon cycle, C:N ratio, Soil biology, Biomass, Soil Organisms & their beneficial & harmful roles.

Practical: Determination of Bulk density & Particle density, Aggregate analysis, Soil strength, soil moisture determination, Soil moisture constants-Field capacity, Infiltration rate, Water holding capacity, Soil Texture & Mechanical analysis-Soil temperature, Analytical chemistry-Basic concepts, Techniques & calculations-collection & processing of soil for analysis-Organic carbon, pH, EC, Soluble cations and anions-Study of a soil profile- Identification of rocks and minerals.

Reference Book:

a. The nature and properties of soils-N.C.Brady and Ray R.Weil b. A text book of Soil Science – T.D. Biswas& S.K. Mukherjee
c. Fundamentals of Soil Science – Indian Society of Soil Science d. Conception,Application of Pedology – J.L. Sehgal

e. Soil Physics – B.P.Ghildyal and R.P.Tripathy

PAPER 105 :- Production Technology of Vegetables

Theory: Importance and scope of the vegetable cultivation, classification of vegetables, types of vegetable farming, Study of vegetable crops with respect to their origin, distribution, climate and soil requirement, sowing and planting ,varieties, nutrient requirement, irrigation, intercultural operations, harvesting , important insect pests diseases and disorders crop improvement and seed production techniques of Solanaceous vegetables (tomato, Brinjal and chilli,Capsicum) Cole crops (cauliflower and cabbage and Knolkhol), Cucurbits (Pumpkin, Cucumber, gourd and melons). Legumes (pea, beans, Cowpea and Guanr), Okra, Bulb crops (onion and garlic), Root crops (radish, turnip, beet and carrot), Potato, Topical tuber crops (sweet potato yams, colossi, cassava and amorphophallus) Leafy vegetables (amaranthus, basela, spinach and fenugreek), perennials (drum stick, curry leaf).

Practical: Rising of vegetable seedlings in the nursery, seed germination planning and layout of kitchen garden. Identification of vegetable seeds and plant parts, Seed rate, fertilizer calculation Physiological disorders, transplanting, irrigation, weeding and intercultural operations of vegetable crops Use of growth regulators in vegetable crops, seed extraction of tomato, brinjal, visit to commercial vegetable farms, Research Stations, Vegetable Markets.

Reference Book:

1. Vegetable Crops -T.K.Bose and M.G.Som
2. Vegetable for the tropical region -PremNath, S.Velayadhan and D.P.Singh
3. Technology for vegetable production and improvement -P.Hazra and M.G.Som. 4. Principles of Vegetable production -S.P.Singh
5. Text book of Vegetable Tuber Crops and spices -S.Thamburaj and N. Singh

PAPER 106 :- Fundamentals of Microbiology

Theory: History of Microbiology: Spontaneous generation theory, Role of microbes in fermentation, Germ theory of disease, protection against infections. Applied areas of Microbiology: Metabolism in bacteria; ATP generation, chemoautotrophy, photo autotrophy, respiration, fermentation. Bacteriophages: structure and properties of Bacterial viruses- Lyric and Glycogenic cycles: various, prisons. Bacterial genetics; Gene expression; Genetic recombination: transformation, conjugation and transduction, genetic engineering, Plasmids, episodes, genetically modified organism.

Practical: General instruction, Familiarization with instruments, materials, glassware etc. in a microbiology laboratory: Practice of Aseptic methods: I- Evaluation of aseptic techniques with Nutrient broth tubes, II-Evaluation of aseptic technique with a Nutrient agar plate. Methods of Sterilization and preparation of media I-Preparation of nutrient broth, nutrient

agar plates, nutrient agar slant and nutrient agar stabling; II-Sterilization of glassware by Dry heating; III-Sterilization of nutrient broth by Filtration: Plating methods for Isolation and Purification of bacteria I- Isolation of bacteria by Streak plate method. II- Isolation of aerobic spore forming bacteria by Enrichment using Streak plate method. III- Checking of purity of a bacterial culture by Streak plating method. Identification of bacteria by staining methods and Biochemical tests: I-Morphological examination of bacteria by simple and different staining. II-Different biochemical tests for identification of bacterial culture; Enumeration of bacteria: I- Enumeration of bacteria by stain slide method. II- Enumeration of bacteria by most Probable number method III- Enumeration of bacteria by pours plate method and spread plate method.

Reference Book:

1. Microbiology – M. J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan, N.R. Kreig 2. Microbiology – N. P. Saxena and D. K. Awasthi
3. Microbiology – R.P. Singh

2nd Year

PAPER 201 :- Statistics

Theory: Introduction: Definition of Statistics and its use and limitations; Frequency Distribution and Frequency Curves; Measures of Central Tendency: Characteristics of Ideal Average, Arithmetic Mean; Median, Mode, Merits and Demerits of Arithmetic Mean; Measures of Dispersion: Standard Deviation, Variance and Coefficient of Variation; Probability: Definition and concept of probability; Normal Distribution and its properties; Introduction to Sampling: Random Sampling; the concept of Standard Error; Tests of Significance- Types of Errors, Null Hypothesis, Level of Significance and Degrees of Freedom, Steps involved in testing of hypothesis; Large Sample Test- SND test for Means, Single Sample and Two Samples; Small Sample Test for Means – Student’s t-test for Single Sample, Two Samples and Paired t test. F test; Chi-Square Test in 2×2 Contingency Table, Yates’ Correction for continuity; Correlation: Types of Correlation and identification through Scatter Diagram, Computation of Correlation Coefficient ‘r’ and its testing. Linear Regression: of Y on X and X on Y. Inter-relation between ‘r’ and the regression coefficients, fitting of regression equations. Experimental Designs: Basic Designs, Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Layout and analysis with equal and unequal number of observations, Randomized Block Design (RBD), Layout and analysis, Latin Square Design (LSD), Layout and analysis.

Tutorial: Construction of Frequency Distribution Tables and Frequency Curves; Computation of Arithmetic Mean for Un-Grouped and Grouped data; Computation of Median for Un-Grouped and Grouped data; Computation of Mode for Un-Grouped and

Grouped data; Computation of Standard Deviation, Variance and Coefficient of Variation for Un-Grouped and Grouped data; SND test for Means, Single Sample; SND test for Means, Two Samples; Student’s t-test for Single Sample; Student’s t-test for Two Samples; Paired t test and F test; Chi-Square Test in 2×2 Contingency Table, Yates’ Correction for continuity; Computation of Correlation Coefficient ‘r’ and its testing; Fitting of regression equations- Y on X and X on Y; Analysis of Completely Randomized Design (CRD); Analysis of Randomized Block Design (RBD); Analysis of Latin Square Design (LSD).

Reference Book:

1. A First Course in Statistics with Applications- AKPC Swain
2. A Text Book of Agricultural Statistics – R.Rangaswamy
3. Fundamentals of Statistics, Vol. I & II – A.M.Goon, M.K.Gupta and B.Dasgupta

PAPER 202 :- Fundamentals of Soil, Water and Conservation Engineering

Theory: Surveying: survey equipment, chain survey, cross staff survey, plotting procedure, calculations of area of regular and irregular fields. Leveling – leveling equipment, terminology, methods of calculation of reduced levels, types of leveling, contours. Irrigation, classification of projects, flow irrigation and lift irrigation. Water source, Water lifting devices – pumps (shallow and deep well), capacity, power calculations Irrigation water measurement- weirs, flumes and orifices and methods of water measurement and instruments Water conveyance systems, open channel and underground pipeline. Irrigation methods – drip and sprinkle irrigation systems. Soil and water conservation – soil erosion, types and engineering control measures

Practical: Acquaintance with chain survey equipment; Ranging and measurement of offsets; Chain triangulation; Cross staff survey; Plotting of chain triangulation; Plotting of cross staff survey; Leveling equipment – dumpy level, leveling staff, temporary adjustments and staff reading; Differential leveling; Profile leveling; Contour survey grid method; Plotting of contours; Study of centrifugal pumping system and irrigation water measuring devices; Study of different components of sprinkler irrigation systems; Study of different components of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems; 1Jniformity of water application in drip and sprinkler systems; Study of soil and water conservation measures.

Reference Book:

1. A Text Book of Surveying and Levelling – P.C. Purnima
2. Land & Water Management Engineering – V.V.N. Murty
3. Soil Erosion and Conservation – R.P. Tripathy and H.P. Singh

PAPER 203 :- Insect Morphology and Systematic

Theory: History of Entomology in India. Factors for insect’s abundance Classification of Phylum Arthropoda up to up to classes Relationship of class Insecta with other classes of Arthropoda Morphology: Structure and functions of insect cuticle and moulting. Body segmentation. Structure of Head, thorax and abdomen.Structure and modifications of insect antennae, mouth parts and legs.Wing venation, modifications and wing coupling apparatus Structure of male and female genetalia.Sensory organs. Metamorphosis and diapauses in insects Types of larvae and pupae Structure and functions of digestive, circulatory, excretory, respiratory, nervous, secretary (Endocrine) and reproductive system in insects Types of reproduction in insects, Systematic: Taxonomy importance, history and development and binomial nomenclature, Definitions of Biotype, Sub – species, species, Genus, Family and Order. Classification of class Insecta up to Orders.Orthoptera, Acrididate, Dictyoptera, Mantidate, Odonata, Isoptera, Termitidae, Thysanoptera, Thripidae, Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae, Cicadellida, Delphacidae, Aphididae, Coccidae, Aleurodidae, Pseudococcidae, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Gelechiidae, Arctiidae, Coleopterans, Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Bruchidae, Scarabaeidae, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Apidae, Trichogrammatidae, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Diptra, Cecidomyiidae, Trypetidae, Tachinidae, Agromyziidae.

Practical: Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages: External features of Grasshopper/Blister beetle; Types of insect antennae, mouthparts and legs, wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus. Types of insect larvae and pupae; Dissection of digestive system in insects (Grasshopper): Dissection of male and female reproductive systems in insects (Grasshopper), Study of characters of orders Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, Isoptera, Thyssanoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Coleopterans, Hymenoptera, Dipterans and their families of agricultural importance.

Reference Book:

1. Insects, Structure and Function – R.F. Chapman
2. A General Text book of Entomology – A. D. Imms
3. General and Applied Entomology – B.V. David and T.N. Anantha Krishnan.

PAPER 204 :- Agricultural Meteorology

Theory: Agricultural meteorology: Weather and climate, micro-climate, weather elements, Earths’ atmosphere, Composition and structure, solar radiation, Nature, properties, depletion, solar constant and energy balance, Atmospheric, temperature, factors affecting, horizontal and vertical distribution, variations, climate change : causes, effect on

ecosystem, crop production ,remedial measures and global warming, Air Pressure variations; Wind: factors affecting, cyclones and anticyclones and general circulation, Atmospheric humidity, vapor pressure and saturation, Process of condensation, formation of dew, fog, mist, snow, rain and hail; Formation and classification of clouds, Introduction to monsoon, Basics of weather forecasting, Introduction to remote sensing and their application. Crop weather relationship, evapotranspiration Agro climatic zones of India and Orissa

Practical: Site selection for Grommet observatory; Measurement of temperature; Measurement of rainfall; Measurement of evaporation (atmospheric/soil); Measurement of atmospheric pressure; Measurement of sunshine duration and solar radiation; Measurement of wind direction and speed and relative humidity; Study of weather forecasting and synoptic charts: Study of remote sensing.

Reference Book:

1. Agro meteorology and remote sensing – D.D. Shaun
2. Text book of Agricultural Meteorology – Edited by M.C. Varshney 3. Introduction to Agro meteorology – H.S.Mavi
4. Crops and Weather – S. Venkataraman and A. Krishnan (ICAR)
5. Climate, Weather and Crops in India – D. Lenya

PAPER 205 :- Principles of Plant Breeding

Theory: Classification of plants. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding; Modes of reproduction, Sexual, Asexual, Apomixes and their classification; Significance in plant breeding; Modes of pollination, genetic consequences, differences between self and cross pollinated crops; Variation – heritable and non-heritable, Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization. Selection, Mass selection, Johansson’s pure line theory, genetic basis of pure line selection; Hybridization, Aims and objectives, types of hybridization; Methods of handling of segregating generations, pedigree method, bulk method, back cross method and modified methods; Incompatibility and male sterility and their utilization in crop improvement; Heterocyst – inbreeding depression, various theories of Heterocyst, exploitation of hybrid vigor development of inbred lines, single cross and double cross hybrids; Population improvement programmers, recurrent selection, synthetics and composites; Methods of breeding for vegetative propagated crops; Clonal selection; Mutation breeding; Policy breeding; significance in crop improvement.

Practical: Botanical description and floral biology; Study of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis; Fertilization and life cycle of an angiosperm plant; Plant Breeder’s kit; Hybridization techniques and precautions to be taken; Floral morphology, selfing, emasculation and crossing techniques of Rice, Sorghum, Maize, Wheat, Bajra, ragi;

Sugarcane, coconut, Groundnut, Castor, Safflower, Seamus, Red gram, Bengal gram Green gram, Soybean, black gram, Chilies, Brinjal, Tomato, Bhendi, Onion, Bottle gourd, Ridge gourd, Cotton, Mesta, Jute and Sun hemp; Study of male sterility and incompatibility in field plots.

Reference Book:

1. Principles of Plant Breeding – R.W. Allard
2. Plant Breeding Principles and Methods – B. D. Singh
3. Plant Breeding – (Ed.) V. L. Chopra
4. Plant Breeding. Analysis and Exploitation of Variation – D. Roy

PAPER 206 :- Agricultural Microbiology

Theory: Soil microbiology, Microbial groups in soil, microbial transformations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sculpture. Biological nitrogen fixation, Micro flora of Rhizosphere

and philosopher micro flora, microbes in composting, microbiology of water, Microbiology of food; microbial spoilage and principles of food preservation. Beneficial microorganisms in Agriculture; Biofertilizer (Bacterial, Cyanobacterial and fungal), microbial insecticides, Microbial agents for control of plant diseases, Biodegradation, biogas production

Practical: Acquaintance with microbial equipments and their use. Enumeration of microbial population in soil Isolation, multiplication and preservation of bacteria Gram

staining of bacteria and measurement of microbial growth Microscopic study of heterocyst in BGA Experiments on ammonification, nitrification, gentrification, organic matter decomposition and evolution of CO2 in soil, Experiment in urea hydrolysis. Morphological study of nitrogen fixing nodules. Methods of application of Biofertlizers in the field

Reference Book:

1. Introduction to soil Microbiology – M Alexander
2. Agricultural Microbiology – G. Rangaswami and Bagyaraj 3. Soil microorganism and plant growth – N.S. Subbarao
4. Biofertilizers in Agriculture – N.S. Subbarao.

PAPER 207 :- Introductory Hematology

Theory: Introduction on Nematode. Economic Importance of Nematodes, History of Phytonematology, Structure of a typical plant parasitic nematode General morphology on various organ systems and organelles Modification of stoma and oesophagous in soil and

plant nematodes Biology of nematode, Classification of economically important nematode genera up to family level with identification marks

Practical: Study of Hematological laboratory appliances, study of bionocular stereoscopic and Research Microscopes, collection of soil and plant samples, Extaction of nematodes from soil by Cobb’s sieving and decantation technique followed by modified Baermann technique, killing and fixing of nematodes, processing and mounting of nematodes, mouth parts and oesophagous of soil and plant nematodes. Identification of Hoplolaimus, Helicotylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Criconemella, Caloosia

Reference Book:

1. Text book on Introductory Plant hematology – R.K. Walia and H.K. Bajaj 2. A Treatise on Phytonematology –P.P. Reddy
3. Introduction to Plant Hematology –V.H. Dropkin

PAPER 208 :- Crop Physiology – I (208)

Theory: Introduction, Importance in Agriculture, Seed Physiology, Seed Structures, morphological, Physiological and biochemical changes during seed development. Physiological maturity, Morphological and physiological changes associated with physiological maturity in crops. Harvest maturity, seed viability and vigor. Factors affecting seeds viability and vigor Methods of testing seed viability and vigor. Germination, utilization of seed reserves during seed germination. Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed germination. Factors affecting seed germination. Post harvest physiology-seed dormancy, definition, types of seed dormancy. Advantages and disadvantages of seed dormancy Causes and remedial measures for breaking seed dormancy. Optimum condition for seed storage, factors Influencing seed storage (ISTA standards). Crop water relationship, physiological Importance of water to plants, water potential and its components, measurement of water Status in plants Transpiration, significance, transpiration in relation to crop productivity water use efficiency WUE in C3, C4 and CAM plants. Factors affecting WUE Photosynthesis, energy synthesis significance of C3, C4 and CAM pathways Relationship of photosynthesis and crop productivity, photorespiration Factors affecting photosynthesis and productivity Method of measuring photosynthesis Photosynthetic efficiency Respiration and its significance, brief account of growth respiration and maintenance respiration, alternate respiration, salt respiration, wound respiration-measurement of respiration

Practical: Preparation of solutions, measurement of water status in roots, stems and leafs, measurement of water potential by Chardakov’s method, measurement of Osmotic otential by Plasmolytic method, measurement of water potential by Gravimetric method,

measurement of absorption spectrum of chloroplastic pigments and fluorescence, measurement of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, measurement of carotinoid pigments, measurement of stomata frequency and index, measurement of respiration, study of leaf anatomy of C3, and C4 plants, measurement of transpiration, imbibitions of seed, optimum conditions of seed germination. Seed viability test, breaking of seed dormancy by chemical and mechanical methods, yield analysis, seed Vigour test.

Reference Book:

1. Principles of seed technology – G.N.Kulkarni
2. Plant physiology – R.G.S. Bidwell
3. A text book of plant physiology – C.P.Mallick and A.K.Srivastav
4. The germination of seeds – A.M. Mayer and A.Poljakoff-Mayber
5. Plant physiology – R.K.Shinha
6. Plant Physiology -K.N.Vatia and A.N.Parasar
7. The physiology and biochemistry of seed development, dormancy and germination – A.A.Khan
8. Seed Physiology – K. Vanangamudiet al

3rd Year

PAPER 301 :- Agronomy

Section – A

Agriculture-history and development Agronomy- definition, its relation with other sciences Classification of crops Tillage-Principles and practices Methods of sowing-suitability under different conditions

Section – B

Seeding practices in relation to kind of seed, time of sowing, soil moisture etc. Weeds- characteristics, losses caused dissemination, competitions and their methods of control.

Section – C

Irrigation-principles and practices Maintenance of soil fertility and productivity-organic manures, fertilizers and their applications

Section – D

Green manuring, cropping system, Multiple cropping. Mixed cropping, crop-rotation, and dry land farming.

Practical

Land measurement, judging of soil texture and ‘water’ Field preparation, making of plots, ridges and raised beds, Identification of crops, weeds, seeds and fertilizers. Use of hand tools and implements. Computation of fertilizer doses and their methods of application Incorporation of crops for green manuring Practice in sowing methods, use of seed drills harvesting of different crops Farm visits for acquaintenance with field problems.

Books Recommended

1. ManuresandFertilizersbyYawalkar 2. ManuresandFertilizersbyP.C.Dass 3. PrinciplesofAgronomybyS.S.Singh

PAPER 302:- Horticulture

Section – A

History and principles of floriculture Present position and future scope of floriculture in India Landscaping, landscape gardening background

Section – B

Cultivation of important trees, shrubs, climbers, shade loving and pot plants

Section – C

Principles and practices of lawn management; Pinching & Disbudding of important flowers

Section – D

Cultivation of common Summer and rainy flowers viz Zinnia, Portulaca, Sunflower, Kochia,Cock’s Comb, Balsam and Marigold.

Practical

Identification and study of growth characters of important trees, shrubs, climbers and annuals planting and maintenance of lawns rising of seedlings, transplanting, pruning, training, pinching and disbudding propagation of woody plants, Practice in Pot Culture.

Books Recommended

1. FloricultureatGlancebyDesRaj
2. FloricultureandLandscapingbyDesRaj
3. BeautifulGardensbyM.S.Randhawa
4. FloweringtreesbyM.S.Randhawa
5. IntroductoryornamentalHorticulturebyJ.S.Arora
6. FloricultureinIndiabyG.S.Randhawa,A.Mukhopadhyay

PAPER 303 :- Soil Science

Section – A

Soils in relation to agricultural production Soil survey Concept of land, soil and soil science

Section – B

Penology and its relationship with other sciences Earth crust in relation to soil components

Section – C

Introduction to rocks and minerals Weathering-physical, chemical and biological Formation of parent materials Soil profile-horizon differentiation and development soil forming processes.

Section – D

Factors of soil formation Introduction to soil survey and classification Soils of India and Punjab, concept of soil degradation

Practical

Demonstration of soil as source of water and nutrients for plants Identification of important rocks and minerals Collection and preparation of soil profile samples. Study of

morphological characteristics Examination of soil profile Study of base maps and soil maps of Punjab and India Visit to soil museum

Books Recommended

1. FundamentalsofsoilsciencebyV.N.Sahay
2. IntroductorysoilsciencebyD.K.Dass
3. SoilsandFertilizersbyTisdale,NelsonandBeaton 4. PedologybySehgal

Nature and Properties of Soil Science by Nyle C. Brady

PAPER 304 :- Plant Pathology

Section – A

History of Plant Pathology Important contribution of A. Van Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, De Bray, E.F. Smith, K.C. Mehta and D. Ivanowski.

Section – B

Plant Pathogenic Fungi: General characteristics and classification of fungi, life cycle of Albugo, Penicillium, Puccinia, Ustilago, and Alter aria

Section – C

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria: General characteristics, morphology, classification, principles of disinfection and sterilization Characteristics of main plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, streptomycin, PPLO and Mycoplasma

Section – D

Plant Viruses: Nature of viruses, their properties Morphology, characteristics and classification, agencies of spread of plant virus diseases in nature (soil, plant material, mechanical means and living organisms like Arthropods, Nematodes and fungi).

Practical

Study of characteristics of various genera of Fungi, Bacteria and nematodes given in the syllabus Familiarization of symptoms caused by different pathogens

Books Recommended

1. IntroductoryVirologybyA.P.Tripathy
2. FungibyHNSrivastava
3. IntroductoryplantBacteriologybyA.P.Tripathy 4. Plant Diseases by R. S. Singh
5. PlantpathologybyR.P.Singh
6. DiseasesfieldcropsbyV.K.Gupta
7. PlantpathologybyGeorgeN.Agrios

Diseases of crop plants in India by G. Rangaswami

PAPER 305 :- Economics

Section – A

Nature of Economic problems Basic problems of an economy, economic analysis and economic policy and tools of economics Gross National Product : Concepts and component method of computation problems and difficulties in computation specially in under- developed countries.

Section – B

Theories of Demand: The classical utility approach the indifference approach derivation of Demand Curves, elasticity of demand.

Theory of Production: Production function, the return to factor and return to scale, cost and cost curves. Relationship between MR, AR and TR

Section – C

Price Determination: Price Determination under different market situation; perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, Monopoly Versus competition.

Section – D

Money and Banking: Definition and components of money; functions of money; functions of commercial and central banks.

Public Finance: Objectives of fiscal policy, principles of taxation, incidence of taxation, credit creation.

Books Recommended

1. AgriculturalEconomics:S.SChhina
2. Microeconomics:T.R.Jain
3. MacroeconomicsbyM.L.Dhingal
4. AdvancedMicroeconomicstheorybyH.L.Ahuja 5. AgroeconomicsbyS.S.Chinna

6. Elementaryeconomicstheory-XIbyR.D.Gupta

PAPER 306 :- AGRICULITURAL ENGINEERING & LAND SURVEYING

Section – A

Introduction to internal combustion engines(two stroke and four stroke), elementary idea of fuels, lubrication and cooling systems. Elementary knowledge of tractors

Section – B

Elementary idea about operations and adjustments of ploughs, cultivators, seed-cum- fertilizer drills and planters

Section – C

Introduction to fundamentals of surveying-chain surveying: units, measurements and equipments for chain survey

Section – D

Instrument surveying: adjustments, use and care of prismatic compass level; leveling, measurement of angles and simpler traverses; recording levels

Practical

Study of fuel lubrication and cooling system of engines and transmission system in tractors; use of surveying instruments; finding angles between the lines with a prismatic;

Study of four stroke engine; study of various parts of seed drills and cultivators

Books Recommended

1. ElementsofagriculturalengineeringbyJagdishwarSahay

2. PrinciplesofagriculturalengineeringvolumeIandIIbyMichealandOjha Principles of Farm Machinery by R. A. Kepner

PAPER 307 :- FISH CULTURE (307)

Section – A

Fish culture, its scope and importance; fish culture practices; classification of fishes.

Section – B

Cultural fishes and criteria for their selection, management of a fish farm, analysis of hydro biological characteristics of pond water; natural and artificial food of fish, feed formulation and feeding strategies.

Section – C

Fish breeding and seed production, common fish disease and their control, harvesting, marketing, preservation and processing of fish.

Section – D

Project planning for establishing fish farm and its economic evaluation; effects of dams and pollution on fish and fisheries

Practical

1. IdentificationofRohu,Catla,Mirgalfish.
2. Selectionofsiteandlayoutofpondforfishculture 3. Preparationoffishaquarium
4. Commonfishproducts
5. Visittofishfarms

Books Recommended

1. AtextbookofAquaculture:M.S.Reddy
2. AnIntroductiontothestudyofFishes,Volume-IandII:Gunther,A. 3. FisheryManagement:ArvindKumar

PAPER 308 :- SILVICULTURE AND AGRO-FORESTRY

Section – A

Forestry –definition, scope, principles and its present status in India and Punjab Forestry composition, types and distribution.

Section – B

Role of trees in rural economy Agro forestry, farm forestry and social forestry in Punjab

Section – C

Choice of species Environmental conservation Forest utilization-major and minor forest products

Section – D

Forest policy and laws; main organizations of forestry in India, Role of NGO’s in forest conservation.

Practical

Identification of trees Measurement of tree height, diameter, girth, bark thickness, increment and taper. Nursery raising and silvicultural practices of some economic forest trees of Punjab, viz. eucalypts, poplar, sissoo, babul and mulberry

Books Recommended

  1. AtextbookofsilviculturebyA.P.Dwivedi
  2. HandbookofforestrybyS.S.Nagi
  3. ElementsofForestrybyFranklinB.H.
  4. FarmForestrybyKharbushanA.
  5. IndianSilviculturebyA.B.Lal
  6. PrinciplesandpracticesofsilviculturebyL.S.Khanna
  7. AHandbookofforestrybyS.S.Nagi
  8. Agro forestry principles and practices by A. P. Dwivedi

4th Year

PAPER 401 :- Animal Science

Section – A

Importance, advantages and limiting factors in livestock, poultry and fish farming Importance of milk, meat and egg in human food

Section – B

Common terms and breeds/species of cattle, buffalo, sheep, poultry

Section – C

Breeding, housing, feeding and general management practices of livestock and poultry breeding, artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis and detection of heat in dairy animals, trends in rearing of exotic poultry birds.

Section – D

Important diseases of livestock, poultry and along with their preventive measures

Practical

Livestock: Visit to different livestock farms; External body parts of different cow and buffalo restraining of different livestock species; housing designs for different livestock species, identification of feeds; fodders and computation of rations; clean milk production, record keeping. Poultry: Survey of University poultry farm, study of body parts and differentiation of laying and non-laying birds, housing designs and poultry equipments, formulation of poultry rations, general management of poultry. Fisheries: pond designs and their management, Identification and management of different types of fish.

Books Recommended

1. Hand Book of Animal Husbandry Sciences : By A. Chakrabarti 2. TextBookofAnimalHusbandry:ByG.C.Banerjee
3. LivestockandPoultryProduction:BySingh&Moore

PAPER 402 :- GENETICS & BIOTECHNOLOGY

Section – A

Introduction to genetics, Mendel: history and laws of inheritance. Modifications of mandolin ratios via incomplete dominance, complimentary genes, multiple Alleles and polygenic inheritance

Section – B

Chromosome structure and number in plants Structural changes of chromosomes DNA RNA and concept of gene Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited characters.

Section – C

Cell division, linkage and crossing over, mutation, polyploidy, position effect, cytoplasmic inheritance

Section – D

Biotechnology: General Introduction, Gene isolation, gene cloning, gene transfer, tissue culture, somatic cell hybridization. Applications of biotechnology in Agriculture

Practical

Slide Preparations of mitosis and meiosis. Life cycle and handling of Drosophila.

Demonstration of Mono hybrid and media preparation, regeneration of plants.

Books Recommended

dihybrid crosses, blood groups, tissue culture,

1. GeneticsbyB.D.Singh
2. PlantBiotechnologybyK.V.Ramada
3. Genetics by Miglani
4. BasicGeneticsbyGurbachanSingh
5. GeneticsbyPhundanSingh
6. PlantBiotechnologybyB.D.Singh
7. PrinciplesofgeneticsbySinnatDunnDoezhanokt

PAPER 403 :- DAIRY PRODUCTION

Section – A

Animal Husbandry:-Dairy, Dariy farming and live stock. Importance of live stock to Agriculture and relation to national Economy Live stock census Milk production in India per capita consumption of milk in various states of India

Section – B

Liquid milk processing, filled and fermented milks, preparation of milk products like cheese, cream, butter, ghee. Formation and let down of milk in udder, physic-chemical properties of milk, factor affecting the quality of milk, colustrum, its composition and utility

Section – C

Condensed and evaporated milks, whole and skimmed milk powder legal and BIS standards of different type of milks and milk products

Section – D

Plant sanitation and affluent disposal, utilization of bi products, dairy plant layout and Project formulation

Practical

Detection of adulteration of milk and its products; preparation of milk products-cheese, flavoured, pasteurized, sterilized and fermented milk, icecream, youghurt, khoa and paneer

Books Recommended

1. Outlines of Dairy Technology by Su Kumar De 2. A text book of G. C. Banerjee
3. Milk and milk production by S. M. Srivastava 4. Technology of Indian milk products by Aneja 5. Food science by N. N. Potter

PAPER 404 :- MICROBIOLOGY

Section – A

Introduction to Microbiology and its scope Discovery of Microorganisms Major groups of eukaryotes and prokaryotes Biology of viruses

Section – B

Methods in microbiology and cultivation of micro-organisms Nutrition and growth of micro- organisms

Section – C

Importance of micro-organisms in agriculture Micro-organisms as pathogens Organic matter decomposition cycles of matter in nature; biological nitrogen fixation

Section – D

Role of micro-organisms in food, dairy and fermentation industries, biogas and waste water treatment. Micro-organisms as food, single cell proteins

Practical

Study and use of microscope and other laboratory equipments; examination of bacteria, fungi, yeast, protozoa and algae staining of bacteria- simple, gram – ve, capsule and spore, cultivation of micro-organisms, demonstration of micro-organism in soil, water and air; isolation of nitrogen fixing bacteria

Books Recommended

1. SoilmicrobiologybyN.S.SubaRao
2. GeneralmicrobiologybyR.P.Singh
3. IntroductoryplantbacteriologybyA.P.Tripathy 4. IntroductiontoMicroBiologybyP.Tauro
5. MicroBiologybyPleczarReidandChan

A text book of Micro Biology by Dubay & Maheshwari

PAPER 405 :- BIO CHEMISTRY

Section – A

Biochemistry and its scope, composition of living matters including chemical constituents of plants; Enzyme types and their functions

Section – B

Elementary knowledge of Vitamins, hormones and minerals in animals and plants

Section – C

Biochemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins including their metabolism

Section – D

Biochemistry of RNA and DNA; importance of DNA as genetic material

Practical

1. Determinationofalcohol,glucoseandstarch
2. Analysisofgurandcansugarfortotalandreducingsugars
3. Analysisofmilkfortotalsolidsandtotalfats
4. Determinationofmeltingpointofsimpleorganiccomponents 5. TLCoffattyacids.

Books Recommended

1. OutlinesofBiochemistrybyE.E.ConnandStump
2. BiochemistrybyA.L.Lehninger
3. IntroductiontoPlantBiochemistrybyGoodwinandMercer 4. BiochemistrybyLubertStryer
5. BiochemistrybyJ.L.Jain,SanjayJain
6. BiochemistrybyRawa

PAPER 406 :- PROJECT